Bektashi

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The word "Baktashi' refers to two different groups of people. The first group are true, correct Baktashis who are pure Muslims and follow the right way shown by Hadrat Hajji Baktash-i Wali.

The second group of Baktashis are the fake, untrue ones, they are closer to Alevis. These are Hurufis, who are on the wrong way. Most of them were called "Baktashi' in the past. In the course of time, they decreased in number and became non-existent. Nowadays, no fake, corrupt Baktashis exist in Turkey. The fake Baktashis among Muslims used this valuable name as their mask so that they could, by hiding their beliefs, deceive youngsters, and lead an easy life. As a matter of fact, the number of those who are disbelievers but hide themselves under these various valuable names is really high, such as the name Malami. Those deviated ones who never worship, commit every kind of sin and evil, and never follow the Shariat called themselves Malami. Actually, Malami means pure Muslim person who performs the fard aspects of all his five daily prayers in a mosque, abstains from the harams (prohibitions), performs the supererogatory and sunnat prayers at home, and avoids being famous. The book Kashif-ul- asrar written by Ishaq Effendi from the city of Tokad states:

Another group trying to demolish Islam are the Baktashis. When "Baktashis' is mentioned, two groups of people should be understood. The first are those pure Muslims who followed the right way shown by Hadrat Hajji Baktash-i Wali.

In the second group are the mendacious Baktashis. Those people who are said to be Baktashis today are in this group. In order to live comfortably among Muslims and to deceive youngsters by concealing their irreligiousness, these false Baktashis have used this name as a mask. There are quite a few irreligious people who hide under various valuable names. For example, the Rafidis, who it has been declared will go to Hell, call themselves Alawi. Formerly, Hadrat Ali's descendants were called Alawi. Later they were called Sayyid (or Sayyid) and Sharif. Alawi means a true Muslim who loves and follows Hadrat Ali. As it is seen, Alawi has been the name of three groups of people. Only one of these groups is corrupt and false Alawis.

So is the name Malami. Some heretical people who do not worship at all and who commit every kind of sin and who do not follow the Shariat call themselves Malamis. These people call the true Muslims who obey the Shariat reactionary bigots. Of old, those pure people who performed such fard worships as namaz five times each day in mosques, who performed the sunnat and the supererogatory prayers secretly in their homes, and who abstained from fame, used to be called Malamis. But now, those who do not perform namaz claim to have become Malamis, thus deceiving Muslims.

Another group of irreligious people who assume a dear name in order to deceive Muslims are the Hurufis; they gathered under the name of Baktashi. Formerly they used to conceal their real purposes. In 1288 A.D. they began to take off their masks. They exhibited their secret book entitled Jawidan. This book of theirs consists of six folios. One of its folios was written in Persian by Fadl-ullah bin Abi Muhammad Tabrizi, who is the founder of Hurufiism. The remaining five were made up by some of his disciples. Of these, the folio named Ashknama, or, rather, Ishknama, by the son of Farishtah, did not reveal disbelief so clearly; therefore, it was printed by lithography in Istanbul in 1288 [1781 A.D.]

The zindiq named Fadl-ullah Hurufi was a Darwish of the Qaramiti path. The Qaramitis are also called Ibahiyya. They called the haram halal and robbed hajjis for seventy or eighty years. They killed Muslims. They established a government. When their government was demolished in 372 [983] they went to different places, where they hid. Of these, Hasan Sabbah established the Ismailiyya state, which was demolished in 654 [1256]. Of these, Fadl, spread disbelief secretly in the city of Astarabat in Iran. He found nine assistants. He invented something called the knowledge of dot. He used to say that such and such a thing is mubah (permitted) because the dot came double, and that such and such thing is haram (forbidden) because the dot came out single. Hadrat Ibni Hajar-i Asqalani gives extensive information about Fadl-ullah and about Hurufiism in his history book entitled Anba-i Fadl. When the disbelief of Fadl-ullah became widespread, Miran Shah, the son of Timur (Tamerlaine), killed Fadl-ullah with his father's command in 796 (1393 A.D.). With a rope fastened to his leg he was dragged along the streets. Thus Islam got rid of an implacably mortal enemy. As Sultan Salim Khan "rahmatullahi ta'ala 'alaih' prevented the spreading of Rafidiism, so Timur Khan "rahmatullahi ta'ala 'alaih' prevented the spreading of Hurufiism, which was very dangerous for Islam, and thus he rendered a great service to Islam. For this reason, the Hurufis hate and always speak ill of Timur Khan.

When Fadl-ullah was killed and Astarabat was demolished, his nine assistants vanished into thin air. Later, one of them, a person named Ali-ul-ala came to a Baktashi convent in Minor Asia; he began to spread the book Jawidan secretly and to deceive the ignorant. He said that this was the way of Hajji Baktash-i Wali. Because he called the haram (prohibited) mubah (permitted) and issued a blank cheque concerning sensuous desires, his words spread rapidly among malevolent people. Calling his words "secrets,' he pledged the informed to secrecy. Those who should reveal the secrets to strangers would be killed; in fact, this happened several times. The secrets were marked with the letters a, c, v, z in the book Jawidan. These marks, each a disbelief, were explained in the book Miftah-ul- hayat. They called this book Sir (secret), too. He who does not have the book of Sir cannot understand Jawidan. They have been deceiving the ignorant since 800 A.D. They have caused them to go out of the Din. Also, Masons have joined them. Their financial provisions betray their Jewish traits. In 1240 [1824 A.D.] they began to spread their disbelief in flouting liberty. Their Ulu (great chief) was killed by Sultan Mahmud Khan II "rahmat-Allahi ta'ala 'alaih'. The Baktashi convents were canceled. He declared a firman ordering that their places be given to the Naqshibandis. They spread about and carried on their activities secretly. They reappeared in 1288. They edited the booklet Ishknama by Farishtah's son Abdulmajid. They began to spread widely. It is written at the beginning of the book Hujjat-ul- baligha by Hadrat Ismail Hakki of Bursa "rahmatullahi ta'ala 'alaih' that those who were deceived by them were called the "Group of Ishik.' [It is written in the book Mirat-ul-maqasid, which was written by Sayyid Ahmad Rif'at Bey, a member of the court of Financial Affairs, "Abdullatif, the son of Farishtah, who is Abdulmajid's brother, was a Sunni. As it is understood from a book which he wrote about tasawwuf, he was a devoted Muslim. He was very sorry about his brother's slipping into Hurufiism. He did not follow them." The son of Farishtah also wrote books other than Ashknama. He says in his book Saadatnama, "I have translated this from Jawidan, from Ashknama and from Muhabbatnama, and it was completed in the year 826." The chief caliph of Fadlullah, Mahmud, somehow unravelled himself from the isolating influence of his master, (not as a result of eventually seeing the truth, but indulging himself into the allurements of an even more lethal dosage of self-complacency). Concocting something called "Ilm-i nokta' (the knowledge of dot), he wrote a book with the title Jawidan-i saghir, in which he proclaimed that the Hurufis were zindiqs, accursed disbelievers. It is written in the book Hujjat-ul- baligha by Ismail Hakki of Bursa that most of the people who read Jawidan are on the path of ilhad and that they are disbelievers because they deny the rising after death by saying, "Not the overt meaning but the covert meaning of the Qur'an is its real meaning.' This book was printed on the margins of the book Rashahat in 1291 [1874] in Istanbul. Hurufis call people who are most excessive in disbelief and ilhad "Sayyid.' For this reason, many of them, such as the Nasimi, claimed to be Sayyids.]

To deceive Muslims, the Hurufis, hiding under the name of Baktashi, attacked through several ways:

1- They say that Fadl-i Hurufi is the god. It is written in Jawidan, "Eternally before, the god used to be an invisible force. It appeared first in letters, then in prophets, and eventually in Fadl. First Hadrat Adam appeared in the guise of a prophet. For this reason angels prostrated themselves before Adam. He communicated the meanings of his four books in Jawidan."

2- Fabling hadiths in their book Khutba-tul-bayan and also in their other books, which they made up in the name of Hadrat Ali's words, they say that sinning does not harm the lovers of Hadrat Ali. By saying that worshipping is unnecessary and that the haram (forbidden) are halal (permitted), they deceive those ignorant people who would like to enter Paradise without pious deeds and worships. After coaxing a person into giving up his worships and iman, they begin to teach him the book Sir, for Jawidan does not contain even the names of the Ahl al-bayt. Khutba-tul-bayan also has a Turkish interpretation.

3- They say that all religions are the same and that they are all accumulated in sixteen belts. "Each of the sixteen belts is a prophet's Shariat. He who wears each belt will have done the Shariat of that prophet. For example, he who wears Hadrat Adam's belt always wears leather, for Hadrat Adam wore leather dresses. He who wears Hadrat Musa's belt does not ride on a mare. He who wears Hadrat Isa's belt never gets married. But adultery and homosexual intercourse are permitted for him. For Hadrat Isa (Jesus) "alaihi's-salam" was a bachelor," they say. It is written in Jawidan by the son of Farishtah that they believe the existence of three gods like Christians. It is written there, again, that the exalted person called Ali was Fadl-i Hurufi. It is written in another page, "Fadl-i Hurufi is superior to Hadrat Muhammad and Ali [May Allahu ta'ala protect us against saying so!]. They did not know the subtleties of the Shariat as well as Fadl does." Its passages contradict one another.

As it is seen, these false Baktashis are not Shiites or Alawis, either. They are so evil. They are polytheists. Being supported by Jews and Masons, they cause Muslims to deviate from the Din. They do not show Jawidan to those who are newly deceived, but they introduce themselves to them as Alawis. However, the Shiite savants say that the Baktashis are disbelievers.

4- Because it is, according to them, permissible to lie, they have written some fabulous books such as Hamzanama and Battal Ghazi. They relate fabulous miracles from their superiors whom they call Baba (father). Ahmad (Baba), who is the founder of their convents in the village of Merdiven in Istanbul, used to gather youngsters and say, "One of the fathers, whose name is unknown, flew one day, and he went to Damascus in an instant. He had asked that he be picked up from a certain tavern. They went there the same day and found him dead at the bottom of a large earthenware. Another father went across the ocean on the back of a lion and then came back." Also, his teacher, Halil Baba, used to gather youngsters in a house in Samatya and tell them many lies. The author of the book Kashif-ul- asrar, who was there at the time, disgraced the Baba, and the host ejected him from the house. One of their lies is their claiming that giving property, rank and children to anybody, the killing of people, and the healing of the sick are within the power of the Babas. They say, "It is fard to perform namaz once in one's whole lifetime. And it is fard to fast once in one's lifetime. Do not misuse your bodies by performing a ghusl." To those who go out of the Din by believing these, they begin to reveal the secrets. They say that the person who is called Muhammad was Ali [May Allahu ta'ala protect us against saying so!] And they say that the person whom they call Allah is Ali [May Allahu ta'ala protect us against saying so!] If a person becomes as crazy as to believe this, they say that all these are Fadl himself. They say, "Every kind of evil, including fornication, has been mubah for you." They then take him to drinking and sex parties.

Another one of their lies is their saying that there are twelve paths. When they are asked how this could ever be possible, they say, "Are you denying Hadrat Hajji Baktash-i Wali?" But, in fact, Hajji Baktash-i Wali, like other murshids, used to obey the Shariat, and he would not deviate from the sunnat-i saniyya, nor would his disciples. But people who lived later were deceived and these irreligious Hurufis appropriated the name Baktashi to themselves. Thanks be to Allahu ta'ala, today there are no more of these false Baktashis. The Baktashis living in Turkey today are all true Muslims. They live in fraternity with the Sunni Muslims.

Another lie of theirs is that they say that though there are some excessive ones among the Baktashis their father is not so. However, all Baktashis have hard drinks. They never perform namaz. Could such people ever be said to be good? Their most famous fathers, such as Koyun Baba in Osmancik, Abdal Musa in Elmali, Sucaeddin (Shuja-addin) in Eskisehir, Kizil Deli in Dimetoka and Sersem Ali in Kalkandelen all read Jawidan and spread disbelief. [It is also written in the dictionary of Munjid that Koyun Baba was a Baktashi.]

The false Baktashis grow their moustache too long. They say that it is the sunnat of Hadrat Ali to grow the moustache long. They say that it is the sunnat of Muawiya to cut the moustache. But the fact is that it has been commanded in hadith ash-Sharifs to shorten the moustache. It is sunnat-i muakkada to shorten the moustache. They say that Hadrat Ali, whom they claim to love, neglected this sunnat, and that Hadrat Muawiya, against whom they bear hostility, obeyed the sunnat. Bukhari-i Sharif, alone, contains various hadith ash- Sharifs about cutting the moustache short. To say that Hadrat Ali disobeyed these commands means not to love but to feel hostility against him. It has been permitted to grow the moustache and the fingernails in combat in order to inspire awe to the enemy. And it has been made makruh to let them grow long at other times. Fadlullah-i Hurufi said, "Such hairs as the eye-brows, eye-lashes and the moustache are the appearance of a holy letter on man. The reason why angels prostrated before Hadrat Adam was because of this appearance. The moustache is sacred. It is a great sin to cut it." Shah Ismail, who spread the Rafidi dogma, adopted it from the Hurufis to grow a moustache. He ordered the Shiites to grow their moustache lest they might resemble the Sunnis. With a view to deceiving youngsters, they said that it was Hadrat Ali's sunnat. Thus they slandered the great imam.

Baktashis do not ever mention Allahu ta'ala, worship, or read Qur'an al-karim. Every morning they assemble in the meeting-room in their peer's home. One of them enters the room bringing in a tray with as many glasses of wine as the number of men present, a slice of bread and a piece of cheese for each. They meet him singing chants of reverence. Stopping in front of each person he gives him one. Respectfully they take the things they are given, rub them gently on their faces, and then eat and drink them. All their worships consist of only this. Those who are married bring their wives and daughters to the meeting, too. They drink and dance. If one of them likes another's wife or daughter, he goes to the man and asks his permission to pick a rose from his garden. The man calls his wife and says to her, "Meet the demand of this beloved friend." Then he kisses her. If the demand is mutual, the two men go to the father and ask his permission. When the father gives permission, they use each other's wife and daughters all through their lives. True Baktashis do not commit these vices.

The fathers of Baktashi hear confessions, like priests. When a person does something which is considered a sin, he comes before the father. The father pulls his ear and then forgives him. If the person's sin is very grave, he begs him, saying, "Get what you like and see to your way." And the father tells him to sacrifice an animal for the Forties or to make a vow for the Three Hundreds. Then, taking a few liras from him, he forgives him. If a Baktashi woman has sexual intercourse with a non-Baktashi man, she goes to the father and says, "A dog has jumped over me." By the father taking money from her, she gets forgiven. Each father has a different way. One night, in a meeting, a woman came before the father and bowed her head. The father told her to untie the buqaghi. Then the father said to whomever he liked of the men, "Stand up and fasten this sister to the log." The man retired to a room with the woman. Another woman who had been looking for a remedy for her illness consulted a Baktashi woman. The Baktashi woman said, "Our father practices sorcery very well," and took her to the convent. There they said to the woman, "Undress yourself! The father is approaching." The woman said no, but they frightened her, by saying, "Don't you dare! They would rather let your corpse go out of here than let you give away their secrets." The woman surrendered. Afterwards, the woman who had brought her there said that what the father had done was not evil and that he had only done the sunnat of Hadrat Ali. Because they do not care about the haram or halal, they do not hesitate to commit those loathsome and base deeds which the basest disbelievers could not do.

In Salonica, at a place called (Gul Baba) outside the walls of the fortress, a Baktashi father named Zulfikar gathered the Baktashis, women and men, on Nawruz Day, and they began to imbibe. Getting drunk, each claimed to be a god, expressing such terms as, "I created those mountains," "If I command that pine-tree, it will prostrate before me," "If I command those dead people they will resurrect." Then a Baktashi named Ali Rida, one of the employees of the telegraph office, stood up and called aloud, "Let him who is Muhammad's donkey come here." One of the men came forward and he mounted the man, saying takbir. A bottle of wine in his one hand a glass in the other, he went among the Baktashi women. Saying takbir, he began to distribute the wine. All the women becoming drunk, he returned to the male group. Then, he said loudly, "Let's perform namaz!" They all stood up, turned their back to the Qibla and, their father being the imam, they performed it as follows: After shouting, "Namaz is a lie. I don't believe in namaz, I don't perform namaz," they all prostrated. When prostrating, their father raised one of his feet and one of his hands and shouted. Then this Ali Rida held his two naked wives by their hands and took them to Sami Bey, who was a Sunni and who had been standing at a distance. He said to him, "See? What a beautiful thing it is to be a Baktashi, isn't it? You'd better become a Baktashi like us. Instead of sitting deprived at a distance, you could entertain yourself together with us." All the Baktashis, women and men alike, began to walk and assault the wives of the Ahl as-sunnat, who had gone out to take air, it being a holiday. Saying, "We own these places. What is their business here who are not from us?" they tore up their veils. The poor women ran away and cried for help. Being few in number, their husbands could not rescue the women. Hearing their cries, the artillery-men in the fortress came to their rescue. They defeated the Baktashis. Such enmity to Islam, which even disbelievers do not feel, was hushed up because Mustafa Bey, the Chief Secretary of the Ministry of the province of Salonica, was a Baktashi. And it was written in a distorted manner in Masonic newspapers. This abominable behavior, which took place in 1288 A.H., was reported to the Prime Ministry with a large petition by the patriotic inhabitants. Upon this, they were punished.

One of their books exposing these liars, prevailing under the sacred name Baktashi, as disbelievers is Haqiqatnama. It is one of the interpretations of Jawidan. There is another book, Mahsharnama, written by Amir Ali, and another book, Muqaddamatul-haqayiq, repeating the disbeliefs written in Ashknama. It curses those who disbelieve them and commands that they be killed. And the booklet Viran Abdal is not one of their secret books; they read it openly in order to deceive Muslims and to cause them to go out of the Din. It slanders Hadrat Aisha "radi-Allahu 'anha' and writes ill of Hadrat al-imam-ul-azam Abu Hanifa by saying that he is a Khariji. It quotes the writings of Fadl-i Hurufi in Jawidan under the pretension of Hadrat Ali's statements. It prescribes many fabulous ablutions, prayers of namaz and other types of worship. Another book is Akhiratnama. Like Ashknama, it is fraught with disbelief. It strives to prove that Fadl-i Hurufi is a god. And another book of theirs is Risala-i Fadl-ullah. Another book is Tuhfa-tul-ushshaq. Their books Risala-i Badraddin and Risala-i Nokta are all interpretations of Jawidan. Another book is Risala-i Huruf. Another one is Turabnama. And another one is Wilayatnama. Most of these books are in Persian.

They have about sixty books in all. They are all based on the nihilism of Allahu ta'ala and the recantation of the Shariat, and they cajole people into worshipping Fadl-i Hurufi. They are worse than all disbelievers and than all sects. The above-given information manifests this fact. This is the end of our excerpt from the book Kashif ul-asrar.

A. Rifki Effendi's book Baktashi Sirri published in Istanbul in 1327 [1909 A.D.] states, "Baktashism goes back to Hadrat-i Abu Bakr-i Siddiq through a backward chain of Hajji Baktash-i Wali, Loqman Khorasani, Hajji Ahmad Yasawi, and Bayazid-i-Bastami. Out of two branches parting from Ahmad Yasawi came Baktashis and Hadjegan. Hurufism is a way of deviation, whereas Baktashism is a way of truth. Hurufism is a branch of Ismailiyya, which has no connection to the Shariat and tasawwuf. They had interpreted Qur'an al-karim according to their own wills and their ways. Their books entitled "Zarra- nama,' "Iskender-nama,' "Fadilat-nama,' "Hakikatname,' and "Risale-i Istiwa' are widespread among the Shiites. The books of Baktashis, like "Wilayatname,' "Kaygusuz Abdal Risalesi', "Rutbatulbayan,' "Sayyid Nasimi Diwani,' "Small Wilayatname,' "Tarzi Ali dede risalesi,' and "Turabi Ali dede risalesi' have no connection with Hurufism. The author of the book "Waridat-i ilahiyya,' Shayh Badruddin the son of the qadi of Samawna, and Niyazi Misri of the Halwati way and Hamza Bali of Bayrami and Ismail Mashuki are not Hurufis." Furthermore, Munji Baba Shaikh Muhammad Surayya makes the following observation in his book Tariqat-i-Aliyya-i-Baktashiyya: "The Sunnis are Ali's Shia. And a person who has affiliated himself to Ali's path, in his turn, is necessarily a Sunni. It therefore makes no difference for us whether Baktashis are called Sunnis or Shiites. The book Jawidan contains no proximity to the Baktashi order. That book is entirely destructive to Islam's moral values. The heresy of Hurufiism flouts the Shariat, and ritualizes dissipation and alcohol parties as if they were acts of worship." As is seen, true Baktashis combine the Shiite and Sunnite characteristics in one common principle: loving the Ahl al- bayt. On the other hand, the Shiite cult is based on hating the Ashab al-kiram, whereas the Sunni path consists in loving both the Ahl al-bayt and the Ashab al-kiram without any exception. Those who profess to be true Baktashis, that is, the so-called followers of Hadrat Hajji Baktash-i-Wali "rahmatullahi ta'ala 'alaih', are not opposed to the Shiite course in one respect; yet it is manifest that they do not share the atrocities inculcated by the Hurufi cult. Today, our country, (Turkey), does not embrace any Alawis or Baktashis practicing the Hurufi vices. All the Alawis (or Alevees) and Baktashis and Sunnis in Turkey congregate around the love of the Ahl al-bayt and enjoy the balmy peace of religious fraternity.

Ahead of all the causes that brought about Yavuz Sultan Salim Khan's fighting Shah Ismail and striking a heavy blow against the Shiis were the preaching of Mulla Arab, a great Sunni savant. It is written in Mirat-i Kainat, "Mulla Arab's name is Vaiz (preacher) Muhammad bin 'Umar bin Hamza. His father and grandfather came from Mawara-un-nahr (Transoxiana) to Antioch, where Mulla Arab was born. A small child as he was, he memorized Qur'an al-karim, the Kanz and the Shatib, and some textbooks. He was taught by his father, and by his paternal uncles, Shaikh Husain and Shaikh Ahmad. He learned very much in Aleppo and in Damascus. After hajj, he was given Ijazat-i hadith by Imam-i Suyuti and Shabi in Egypt. Malik Qaytabay, one of the Circassian sultans in Egypt, appointed him as a preacher and Mufti. Consequently, he wrote the book of fiqh Nihayat-ul-furu' for the Sultan. Upon the Sultan's death in 901, he came to Bursa, and thence to Istanbul. The books Tahzeeb-ush-shamail and Hidayat-ul'ibad-ila-sabil-ir-rashad, which he wrote for Bayazid Khan II., added to his fame. He joined the Yundu expedition and caused the conquest of Meton city. He encouraged and incited Yavuz Sultan Salim Khan to perform jihad against the Shiis. To this end he wrote the book Assadad fi fadail-il-jihad. joining the Chaldiran expedition, he encouraged the army with his preaching. During the combats, he prayed and the Sultan said, "Amin.' Preaching for ten years in Saraykoy and in Uskup, he caused many disbelievers to become Muslims. He joined the Angurus expedition with Sultan Sulaiman (the Lawgiver), and the prayers for victory which he sent were accepted by Allahu ta'ala. Then, going to Bursa, he wrote various books. He was very much learned in chemistry. He built two masjids (small mosques) and two Jami's (big mosques). He passed away in 938 [1532 A.D.]. He is in his tomb near Mulla Arab Mosque in the Mulla Arab Quarter in Bursa. His books Tahzib-ush-shamail and Al-maqasid fi fadail-il-masajid, which are about Sirat-i Nabawi, are well-known. The book Shaqayiq contains his detailed biography.


Page last updated: Friday, July 11, 2008 16:40:47 -0400